25. April, 2019
Cannabigerol (CBG) is one of more than 150 cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. However, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are the most studied ones.
The cannabigerolic acid (CBGa) derives from an olivetolic acid (which is a conjugate acid of an olivetolate). During the growth of the cannabis plant, the CBGa or CBG in its acid form, becomes into THCa, CBDa or CBCa, under the action of certain enzymes that metabolize CBGa and break it down.
Afterwards, the decarboxylation produces the phytocannabinoids THC, CBD and CBC, among others. However, the direct elimination of a carboxyl group within the CBGa forms the CBG within the plant, approximately 1%.
How CBG works?
An article published by the British Journal of Pharmacology  suggests that it acts as a potent agonist (activator) of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and antagonist (blocker) of the 5-HT1A receptor.
Besides, it interacts with the CB1 receptors as a competitive antagonist (blocker competing for the binding sites of the activator), mainly affecting the central nervous system. Even more, it has a significant affinity for the CB2 receptors, however, the researchers still do not conclude whether its function in said receptors is agonist or antagonist.
Therapeutic effects of CBG
A study published in 2009 concerning glaucoma  in animals demonstrated that either THC, as well as CBG, could reduce intraocular pressure. The second one being a non-psychoactive substance.
Another scientific article argues that cannabigerol could decrease the progression of colorectal cancer by selectively inhibiting the growth of cancer cells, blocking the transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels), which are known to be involved in the growth of cancer cells.
Older publications support its analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and antihypertensive effects. Interestingly, high doses demonstrated to have cytotoxic properties in carcinoma of epithelial cells and breast cancer, as well as, being a good inhibitor in the proliferation of keratinocytes, therapeutic potential in psoriasis. At the experimental level, CBG could positively help in the treatment for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).
Lastly, a 2015 study with mice explains that the CBG has a promising neuroprotective effect for the treatment of Huntington’s Disease. Other illnesses like Parkinson or multiple sclerosis could also benefit from this property. Despite the previous information, studies in humans are needed in order to clarify the side-effects, the needed dose, or even to obtain results with a combination of phytocannabinoids.
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